Sea level rise: what has happened so far

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 02:05 PM GMT die 10o June, anno 2009

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Sea level has been rising globally since the late 1700s. This rise has accelerated in recent decades, thanks to increased melting of glaciers and ice sheets due to a warmer climate, plus the fact that warmer oceans are less dense and expand, further increasing sea level. Though sea level rise appears to have slowed over the past five years, it will significantly accelerate if the climate warms the 2 - 3°C it is expected to this century. If these forecasts of a warmer world prove accurate, higher sea levels will be a formidable challenge for millions of people world-wide during the last half of this century. Sea level rise represents one of my personal top two climate change concerns (drought is the other). I'll present a series of blog posts over the coming months focusing on at-risk areas in the U.S., Caribbean, and world-wide. Today, I focus on the observed sea level rise since the Ice Age.

What's at stake
Higher sea levels mean increased storm surge inundation, coastal erosion, loss of low-lying land areas, and salt water contamination of underground drinking water supplies. About 44% of the Earth's 6.7 billion people live within 150 km (93 miles) of the coast, and 600 million people live at an elevation less than ten meters (33 feet). Eight of the ten largest cities in the world are sited on the ocean coast. In the U.S., the coastal population has doubled over the past 50 years. Fourteen of the twenty largest urban centers are located within 100 km of the coast, and are less than ten meters above sea level (McGranahan et al., 2007). The population of many vulnerable coastal regions are expected to double by 2050, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

Sea level rise since the Ice Age
Before the most recent Ice Age, sea level was about 4 - 6 meters (13 - 20 feet) higher than at present. Then, during the Ice Age, sea level dropped 120 meters (395 ft) as water evaporated from the oceans precipitated out onto the great land-based ice sheets. The former ocean water remained frozen in those ice sheets during the Ice Age, but began being released 12,000 - 15,000 years ago as the Ice Age ended and the climate warmed. Sea level increased about 115 meters over a several thousand year period, rising 40 mm/year (1.6"/yr) during one 500-year pulse of melting 14,600 years ago. The rate of sea level rise slowed to 11 mm/year (0.43"/yr) during the period 7,000 - 14,000 years ago (Bard et al., 1996), then further slowed to 0.5 mm/yr 6,000 - 3,000 years ago. About 2,000 - 3,000 years ago, the sea level stopped rising, and remained fairly steady until the late 1700s (IPCC 2007). One exception to this occurred during the Medieval Warm Period of 1100 - 1200 A.D., when warm conditions similar to today's climate caused the sea level to rise 5 - 8" (12 - 21 cm) higher than present (Grinsted et al., 2008). This was probably the highest the sea has been since the beginning of the Ice Age, 110,000 years ago. There is a fair bit of uncertainty in all these estimates, since we don't have direct measurements of the sea level.


Figure 1. Global sea level from 200 A.D. to 2000, as reconstructed from proxy records of sea level by Moberg et al. 2005. The thick black line is reconstructed sea level using tide gauges (Jevrejeva, 2006). The lightest gray shading shows the 5 - 95% uncertainty in the estimates, and the medium gray shading denotes the one standard deviation error estimate. The highest global sea level of the past 110,000 years likely occurred during the Medieval Warm Period of 1100 - 1200 A.D., when warm conditions similar to today's climate caused the sea level to rise 5 - 8" (12 - 21 cm) higher than present. Image credit: Grinsted, A., J.C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2009, "Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD", Climate Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s00382-008-0507-2, 06 January 2009.

Sea level rise over the past 300 years
Direct measurements of sea level using tide gauges began in Amsterdam in 1700. Additional tide gauges began recording data in Liverpool, England in 1768 and in Stockholm, Sweden in 1774. These gauges suggest that a steady acceleration of sea rise of 0.01 mm per year squared began in the late 1700s, resulting in a rise in sea level of 2.4" (6 cm, 0.6 mm/yr) during the 19th century and 7.5" (19 cm, 1.9 mm/yr) during the 20th century (Jevrejeva et al., 2008). There is considerable uncertainty in just how much sea level rise has occurred over the past few centuries, though. Measuring global average sea level rise is a very tricky business. For starters, one must account for the tides, which depend on the positions of the Earth and Moon on a cycle that repeats itself once every 18.6 years. Tide gauges are scattered, with varying lengths of record. The data must be corrected since land is sinking in some regions, due to pumping of ground water, oil and gas extraction, and natural compaction of sediments. Also, the land is rising in other regions, such as Northern Europe, where it is rebounding from the lost weight of the melted glaciers that covered the region during the last Ice Age. Ocean currents, precipitation, and evaporation can cause a 20 inch (50 cm) difference in sea level in different portions of the ocean. As a result of all this uncertainty, the 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report gave a range of 4 - 10" (10 - 25 cm) for the observed sea level rise of the 20th century. The 2007 IPCC report narrowed this range a bit, to 5 - 9" (12 - 22 cm), or 1.2 - 2.2 mm/year. Rates of sea level rise are much higher in many regions. In the U.S., the highest rates of sea-level rise are along the Mississippi Delta region--over 10 mm/yr, or 1 inch/2.5 years (USGS, 2006). This large relative rise is due, in large part, to the fact that the land is sinking.


Figure 2. Absolute sea level rise between 1955 and 2003 as computed from tide gauges and satellite imagery data. The data has been corrected for the rising or sinking of land due to crustal motions or subsidence of the land, so the relative sea level rise along the coast will be different than this. The total rise (in inches) for the 48-year period is given in the top scale, and the rate in mm/year is given in the bottom scale. The regional sea level variations shown here resulted not only from the input of additional water from melting of glaciers and ice caps, but also from changes in ocean temperature and density, as well as changes in precipitation, ocean currents, and river discharge. Image credit: IPCC, 2007

Sea level rise over the past 15 years
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2007 report, sea level accelerated from the 1.2 - 2.2 mm/yr observed during the 20th century to 3.1 mm/year during the period 1993 - 2003. These estimates come from high resolution measurements from satellite radar altimeters, which began in 1992. Tide gauges showed a similar level of sea level rise during that ten-year period. The IPCC attributed more than half of this rise (1.6 mm/yr) to the fact that the ocean expanded in size due to increased temperatures. Another 1.2 mm/yr rise came from melting of Greenland, West Antarctica, and other land-based ice, and about 10% of the rise was unaccounted for. However, during the period 2003 - 2008, sea level rise slowed to 2.5 mm/year, according to measurements of Earth's gravity from the GRACE satellites (Cazenave et al., 2008). This reduction in sea level rise probably occurred because ocean sea surface temperatures have not warmed since 2003 (Figure 3). The authors concluded that sea level rise due to ocean warming decreased more than a factor of five from 2003 - 2008, compared to 1993 - 2003, contributing only 0.3 mm/yr vs. the 1.6 mm/yr previously.


Figure 3. Global average sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from 1990-2008. SSTs have not increased in the past seven years. Image credit: NASA/GISS.

For more information
The best source of information I found while compiling my sea level pages was the Coastal Sensitivity to Sea-Level Rise: A Focus on the Mid-Atlantic Region report by the U.S. Climate Science Program. It has a huge number of references to all the latest science being done on sea level rise.

References
Bard, E., et al., 1996, "Sea level record from Tahiti corals and the timing of deglacial meltwater discharge", Nature 382, pp241-244, doi:10.1038/382241a0.

Cazenave et al., 2008, "Sea level budget over 2003-2008: A reevaluation from satellite altimetry and Argo", Global and Planetary Change, 2008; DOI:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2008.10.004

Grinsted, A., J.C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2009, "Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD", Climate Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s00382-008-0507-2, 06 January 2009.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), 2007: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor, and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, 996 pp.

Jevrejeva, S., J.C. Moore, A. Grinsted,, and P.L. Woodworth, 2008, "Recent global sea level acceleration started over 200 years ago?", Geophysical Research Letters, 35, L08715, doi:10.1029/2008GL033611, 2008.

McGranahan, G., D. Balk, and B. Anderson, 2007, "The rising tide: assessing the risks of climate change and human settlements in low elevation coastal zones", Environment & Urbanization, 19(1), 17-37.

Moberg, A., et al., 2005, "Highly variable northern hemisphere temperature reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data", Nature 433, pp613-617, doi:10.1038/nature03265.

United States Geological Survey (USGS), 2006, National Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea-Level Rise: Preliminary Results for the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coast, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-179.

Tropical update
The tropical Atlantic is quiet, and the only region worth watching is the Western Caribbean, which could see formation of a tropical disturbance with heavy thunderstorm activity this weekend.

Jeff Masters

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1832. SavannahStorm
02:45 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting KEHCharleston:
Good morning.
RE:growing oranges in GA and SC
There were indigenous orange groves along the SC coast at one time. Not sure how tasty the oranges were. Orange Street downtown Charleston was a naturally occurring orange grove and there is an Orange Grove Road in the West Ashley area (across the river from downtown Charleston).
Again, not sure how tasty or large they were.


I have a satsuma tree in my front yard! They are about the size of a tangerine, but when full-ripe they still have a little bit of yellow in the rind. The fruit also takes a long time to ripen- though it may look ready around Thanksgiving, the taste is still bitter. We usually pick ours around New Year's when they are the sweetest and juiciest.

One amazing thing about the satsuma tree is how productive it is. Our small tree (no more than 15 feet tall) produced over 100 fruit one year. We had so many flowers this year we may have even more!
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 18 Comments: 2343
1831. IKE
02:37 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
NEW BLOG!
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1830. Cavin Rawlins
02:26 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Tropical Update
Member Since: July 24, 2005 Posts: 407 Comments: 19076
1829. extreme236
02:25 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Looks like an AOI has formed just south of the Mexican border:

Member Since: August 2, 2007 Posts: 19 Comments: 19234
1828. weathermanwannabe
02:24 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting StormW:
Good morning!

TROPICAL WEATHER SYNOPSIS JUNE 12, 2009 ISSUED 10:00 A.M. EDT


Nice synopsis Storm...."heat buildup" is one of the operative issues....The later the real season "starts", the more potential for a few real intense storms...
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 9211
1827. KEHCharleston
02:24 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting Catherdr:
Satsuma - a form of tangerine, grows in South Georgia and North Florida. It's quite tasty, but not very pretty visually. Best found at farmers markets and private fruit stands.

Haven't seen anything on big commercial plantings. But, then I don't read the newspapers much. And farmers being an independent sort of businessman wouldn't be likely to put out a press release.
Good morning.
RE:growing oranges in GA and SC
There were indigenous orange groves along the SC coast at one time. Not sure how tasty the oranges were. Orange Street downtown Charleston was a naturally occurring orange grove and there is an Orange Grove Road in the West Ashley area (across the river from downtown Charleston).
Again, not sure how tasty or large they were.
Member Since: August 19, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 2490
1826. sporteguy03
02:22 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Thank you everybody for the updates!

Hi Wx Logic!
Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 5348
1824. WxLogic
02:04 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Morning...
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 4 Comments: 4976
1823. stillwaiting
02:02 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
IKe:it'll just be a matter of days,shear has dropped 20-30kts over a large area,most values over the west carib now 20-30kts,once its down around 10-20kts,it should be showtime w/a wetter than average 2nd half of june over the basin,IMO...sound familar???(end of may was wet,begining was dry),if this trend continues to amplify over the season,we should get atleast 2 or 3 majors,IMO
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 20 Comments: 4970
1822. DDR
01:58 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting futuremet:
I knew it, the central Atlantic tropical wave could not maintain its convective activity without the aid of the diffluent flow caused by the deformation zone.

Poof

Ironically, its vorticity has increased.




I guess we'll have to wait another week for rain,this is turning out to be one of the driest june for us here in Trinidad.
Member Since: April 27, 2007 Posts: 14 Comments: 1701
1821. TheCaneWhisperer
01:53 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting TheCaneWhisperer:


Ebb or not we'll see in time. There is a lot of cooler waters along the SA coast and expanding.


I'm not saying El Nino won't come, just maybe not in time to affect peak season as conditions lag. Lack of tropical activity, upwelling, in the EPAC & WPAC may keep that warm water right where it is for a period of time. Toss a couple canes down there to mix things up and you have a different story, IMO.
1820. IKE
01:45 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Also, wind shear is decreasing in the central Caribbean. Good LLC and ULD in that area....

Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
1819. futuremet
01:38 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
I knew it, the central Atlantic tropical wave could not maintain its convective activity without the aid of the diffluent flow caused by the deformation zone.

Poof

Ironically, its vorticity has increased.



Member Since: July 19, 2008 Posts: 43 Comments: 4051
1818. kimoskee
01:28 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stormwatcherCI:
Looks to be making up again to the SE of Jam.


When did that happen??? Looks like Dom Rep is going to get clobbered again!
Member Since: August 17, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 672
1817. Orcasystems
01:27 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009


SSMI/AMSRE-derived Total Precipitable Water - North Atlantic
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
1816. kmanislander
01:26 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Good morning all

Shear still rules the Caribbean and the upper level trough has dug pretty deep into the basin.

The surface trough is no longer evident and certainly no surface low. Back to square one.

This morning's Quikscat pass
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 15842
1815. TheCaneWhisperer
01:25 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting Skyepony:
I think we've just hit an ebb in the over all rise of ENSO. Check out what is under the surface..


Ebb or not we'll see in time. There is a lot of cooler waters along the SA coast and expanding.
1814. Orcasystems
01:22 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
from what i am seeing and what you are seeing Tampa it is quite possible that the 2009 numbers could be revised come august. what is amazing is that with the forecast of warmer pacific waters the cyclonic activity in the Epac has yet to kick off despite almost one month into the season


CMC is indicating one or two in EPAC on the present run.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
1813. stoormfury
01:20 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
from what i am seeing and what you are seeing Tampa it is quite possible that the 2009 numbers could be revised come august. what is amazing is that with the forecast of warmer pacific waters the cyclonic activity in the Epac has yet to kick off despite almost one month into the season
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2711
1812. Ossqss
01:16 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
So how do you all think the dancing ENSO item is affecting the modeling?
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8186
1811. stormwatcherCI
01:16 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting kimoskee:
Norbrook, St. Andrew, Jamaica.

Met office has the island under flash flood warnings again. Not sure what's up - it's beautiful blue skies and sunshine at my location.

I thought the system was moving away from Jamaica?
Looks to be making up again to the SE of Jam.
Member Since: October 9, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 8392
1810. Orcasystems
01:13 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Blog Update
Reflector site for those at work, which now also includes Weather456, daily updates


AOI #1

AOI #2

Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
1809. TampaSpin
01:11 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
Tampa what are you saying are you El nino it self? LOL


I'm not sure we will get much past Nuetral before La Nina comes back again is what im saying...Black Crow coming im sure....I have been watching this for some time.....The Calving Wave did occur and many think the next will bring El Nino then....i think it will do just the opposite...and keep us in Nuetral because of the Cooler Central Pacific....
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
1808. Skyepony (Mod)
01:11 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
I think we've just hit an ebb in the over all rise of ENSO. Check out what is under the surface..
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 172 Comments: 38128
1807. NEwxguy
01:10 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
GM, all.2" of rain during the night,lot of flooded streets this morning.
Member Since: September 6, 2007 Posts: 881 Comments: 15814
1806. TheCaneWhisperer
01:10 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


Heck you got a herem.......LOL


Wife, Mother-In Law and 2 year old daughter, love them all to death.
1805. stoormfury
01:08 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Tampa what are you saying are you El nino it self? LOL
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2711
1804. TampaSpin
01:04 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting TheCaneWhisperer:


Plus, I live with 3 women, I can stand up to a lot of Flack my friend, lol.


Heck you got a herem.......LOL
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
1803. TheCaneWhisperer
01:02 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


You can't say that.......LOL.....I have been saying the same thing for about 2 weeks also...i just don't think a strong El Nino is in the making now.
Get ready for your bashing! Everytime i suggested that it was like a war was breaking out.......LOL


Plus, I live with 3 women, I can stand up to a lot of Flack my friend, lol.
1802. TampaSpin
01:01 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
HEre is a great 365 day link to watch! It is very good.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
1801. TheCaneWhisperer
12:58 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting TampaSpin:


You can't say that.......LOL.....I have been saying the same thing for about 2 weeks also...i just don't think a strong El Nino is in the making now.
Get ready for your bashing! Everytime i suggested that it was like a war was breaking out.......LOL


I stand by what I am looking at currently.
1800. kimoskee
12:58 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Norbrook, St. Andrew, Jamaica.

Met office has the island under flash flood warnings again. Not sure what's up - it's beautiful blue skies and sunshine at my location.

I thought the system was moving away from Jamaica?
Member Since: August 17, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 672
1799. TampaSpin
12:57 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
LOok how the warmer waters are retreating west....HUM
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
1798. Tazmanian
12:57 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
yes taz i have always rea Dr Masters' blog but ealier sst animation showed warmer waters off the SA coast



oh ok sorry
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115256
1797. melwerle
12:56 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Morning Everyone
Member Since: June 28, 2006 Posts: 12 Comments: 1837
1796. TampaSpin
12:53 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting TheCaneWhisperer:


I don't know man, that top image you posted looks like a re-strengthening of La-Nina conditions with cooler waters expanding to the south. My bets are on Cool Neutral.


You can't say that.......LOL.....I have been saying the same thing for about 2 weeks also...i just don't think a strong El Nino is in the making now.
Get ready for your bashing! Everytime i suggested that it was like a war was breaking out.......LOL
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20443
1795. stoormfury
12:51 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
yes taz i have always rea Dr Masters' blog but ealier sst animation showed warmer waters off the SA coast
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2711
1794. Sh0cK
12:49 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting DaytonaBeachWatcher:
Pat
i dont think that link is working, least not for me


The links work, you just have to wait a few for it to load.
Member Since: November 3, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 182
1793. TheCaneWhisperer
12:45 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
A lot of the warmer energy above will transfer into the Caribbean over time, as it is doing now. The Nino region feeds from the south.
1792. Tazmanian
12:45 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
it looks like a neutral/weak el nino in the making




Link




like hello we are in neutral have t you been following dr m blog?? we are now in neutral and by june- july will be in weak el nino stronger one by winter
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115256
1790. TheCaneWhisperer
12:41 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
yes CaneWhisperer i was only cautious in not coming the the conclusion you came to, concerning a la nina. will wait for anther week to come to any conclusion


That is a rather large cool pool, I would think they would at least mention it in the Monday ENSO update.
1789. stoormfury
12:40 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
yes CaneWhisperer i was only cautious in not coming the the conclusion you came to, concerning a la nina. will wait for anther week to come to any conclusion
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2711
1788. TheCaneWhisperer
12:33 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Quoting stoormfury:
it looks like a neutral/weak el nino in the making




Link


I don't know man, that top image you posted looks like a re-strengthening of La-Nina conditions with cooler waters expanding to the south. My bets are on Cool Neutral.
1787. StormJunkie
12:27 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
On site and working, watch the webcam!
Member Since: August 17, 2005 Posts: 26 Comments: 16838
1786. stoormfury
12:23 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
it looks like a neutral/weak el nino in the making




Link
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 2711
1785. Patrap
12:15 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009

HUD grants Texas nearly $2 billion for Ike, Gustav
San Antonio Business Journal


San Antonio > News
Thursday, June 11, 2009,


The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development will release an additional $1.7 billion worth of emergency disaster aid to Texas to support ongoing assistance for Hurricane Ike and Gustav relief efforts.

The money can be used for infrastructure and housing revitalization in areas affected by these two hurricanes. Gustav and Ike made landfall in Texas last fall.

The money will support the state’s long-term disaster recovery efforts. Texas and local communities may use the funds to buy out homeowners living in high-risk areas, provide relocation assistance to encourage residents to move to safer locations, pay for home improvements such as property elevation and reinforcements, draft land-use plans that reduce development in high-risk areas, and improve and enforce building codes.

The latest funding is in addition to the $1.3 billion HUD allocated last year to Texas through its Community Development Block Grant Program.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128630
1784. stormwatcherCI
12:14 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Flare up SE of Jamaica again.
Member Since: October 9, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 8392
1783. DaytonaBeachWatcher
12:12 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Pat
i dont think that link is working, least not for me

ok now it is
Member Since: June 29, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 1136
1782. Patrap
12:10 PM GMT die 12o June, anno 2009
Atlantic,near Africa WV,LARGE IMAGE


Same View,Low Cloud Product
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128630

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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.